Madisonville is a city located in Madison County in the US state of Texas. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 4,396. The city was founded in 1853 and named after US President James Madison. Madisonville being close to the center of the county and having fresh water from the stream is the reason why the site was selected. The town developed into an agricultural trade center by 1870 with a total population of 98. In the 1870s, Madisonville had its first deployment of state police. It has since advanced to include other sectors such as manufacturing, healthcare, education, and government.